Entries in SoulMindMatter (38)

Monday
Jun292015

Can the Bacteria in Your Gut Explain Your Mood?

The Dolder Grand
Health & Rejuvenation

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine


We offer gut microbiome exchange (transplantation) as novel opportunity in prevention and treatment of various and so far difficult to treat ailments (auto-immune diseases, metabolic disorders, neuro-psychiatric diseases and addictions, cardiovascular disease, endocrine disorders and infertility, cancer).

 

It is the rich array of microbiota in our intestines that makes us the human beings we are and preserves our health.

 

Since 2007, when scientists announced plans for a Human Microbiome Project to catalog the micro-organisms living in our body, the profound appreciation for the influence of such organisms has grown rapidly with each passing year. Bacteria in the gut produce vitamins and break down our food; their presence or absence has been linked to obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and the toxic side effects of prescription drugs. Biologists now believe that much of what makes us human depends on microbial activity. The two million unique bacterial genes found in each human microbiome can make the 23,000 genes in our cells seem paltry, almost negligible, by comparison. ‘‘It has enormous implications for the sense of self,’’ Tom Insel, the director of the National Institute of Mental Health, told me. ‘‘We are, at least from the standpoint of DNA, more microbial than human. That’s a phenomenal insight and one that we have to take seriously when we think about human development.’’

Given the extent to which bacteria are now understood to influence human physiology, it is hardly surprising that scientists have turned their attention to how bacteria might affect the brain. Micro-organisms in our gut secrete a profound number of chemicals, and researchers have found that among those chemicals are the same substances used by our neurons to communicate and regulate mood, like dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These, in turn, appear to play a function in intestinal disorders, which coincide with high levels of major depression and anxiety. Last year, for example, a group in Norway examined feces from 55 people and found certain bacteria were more likely to be associated with depressive patients.

Anxiety, depression and several pediatric disorders, including autism and hyperactivity, have been linked with gastrointestinal abnormalities. Microbial transplants can be performed safely, it is not invasive brain surgery, and that is the point: Changing a patient’s bacteria can be done, altering his genes is still far away.

When Mark Lyte from the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center campus in Abilene, Tex., as one of the first, began his work on the link between microbes and the brain three decades ago, it was dismissed as a curiosity. By contrast, last September, the National Institute of Mental Health awarded four grants worth up to $1 million each to spur new research on the gut microbiome’s role in mental disorders, affirming the legitimacy of a field that had long struggled to attract serious scientific credibility. Lyte and one of his longtime colleagues, Christopher Coe, at the Harlow primate lab, received one of the four. ‘‘What Mark proposed going back almost 25 years now has come to fruition,’’ Coe told me. ‘‘Now what we’re struggling to do is to figure out the logic of it.’’ It seems plausible that we might use microbes to diagnose neurodevelopmental disorders, treat mental illnesses and perhaps even fix them in the brain.

In 2011, a team of researchers at University College Cork, in Ireland, and McMaster University, in Ontario, published a study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science that has become one of the best-known experiments linking bacteria in the gut to the brain. Laboratory mice were dropped into tall, cylindrical columns of water in what is known as a forced-swim test, which measures over six minutes how long the mice swim before they realize that they can neither touch the bottom nor climb out, and instead collapse into a forlorn float. Researchers use the amount of time a mouse floats as a way to measure what they call ‘‘behavioral despair.’’ (Antidepressant drugs, like Zoloft and Prozac, were initially tested using this forced-swim test.)

For several weeks, the team, led by John Cryan, the neuroscientist who designed the study, fed a small group of healthy rodents a broth infused with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a common bacterium that is found in humans and also used to ferment milk into probiotic yogurt. Lactobacilli are one of the dominant organisms babies ingest as they pass through the birth canal. Recent studies have shown that mice stressed during pregnancy pass on lowered levels of the bacterium to their pups. This type of bacteria is known to release immense quantities of GABA; as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA calms nervous activity, which explains why the most common anti-anxiety drugs, like Valium and Xanax, work by targeting GABA receptors.

Cryan found that the mice that had been fed the bacteria-laden broth kept swimming longer and spent less time in a state of immobilized woe. ‘‘They behaved as if they were on Prozac,’’ he said. ‘‘They were more chilled out and more relaxed.’’ The results suggested that the bacteria were somehow altering the neural chemistry of mice.

Until he joined his colleagues at Cork 10 years ago, Cryan thought about microbiology in terms of pathology: the neurological damage created by diseases like syphilis or H.I.V. ‘‘There are certain fields that just don’t seem to interact well,’’ he said. ‘‘Microbiology and neuroscience, as whole disciplines, don’t tend to have had much interaction, largely because the brain is somewhat protected.’’ He was referring to the fact that the brain is anatomically isolated, guarded by a blood-brain barrier that allows nutrients in but keeps out pathogens and inflammation, the immune system’s typical response to germs. Cryan’s study added to the growing evidence that signals from beneficial bacteria nonetheless find a way through the barrier. Somehow — though his 2011 paper could not pinpoint exactly how — micro-organisms in the gut tickle a sensory nerve ending in the fingerlike protrusion lining the intestine and carry that electrical impulse up the vagus nerve and into the deep-brain structures thought to be responsible for elemental emotions like anxiety. Soon after that, Cryan and a co-author, Ted Dinan, published a theory paper in Biological Psychiatry calling these potentially mind-altering microbes ‘‘psychobiotics.’’

It has long been known that much of our supply of neurochemicals — an estimated 50 percent of the dopamine, for example, and a vast majority of the serotonin — originate in the intestine, where these chemical signals regulate appetite, feelings of fullness and digestion. But only in recent years has mainstream psychiatric research given serious consideration to the role microbes might play in creating those chemicals. Lyte’s own interest in the question dates back to his time as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pittsburgh in 1985, when he found himself immersed in an emerging field with an unwieldy name: psychoneuroimmunology, or PNI, for short. The central theory, quite controversial at the time, suggested that stress worsened disease by suppressing our immune system.

By 1990, at a lab in Mankato, Minn., Lyte distilled the theory into three words, which he wrote on a chalkboard in his office: Stress->Immune->Disease. In the course of several experiments, he homed in on a paradox. When he dropped an intruder mouse in the cage of an animal that lived alone, the intruder ramped up its immune system — a boost, he suspected, intended to fight off germ-ridden bites or scratches. Surprisingly, though, this did not stop infections. It instead had the opposite effect: Stressed animals got sick. Lyte walked up to the board and scratched a line through the word ‘‘Immune.’’ Stress, he suspected, directly affected the bacterial bugs that caused infections.

To test how micro-organisms reacted to stress, he filled petri plates with a bovine-serum-based medium and laced the dishes with a strain of bacterium. In some, he dropped norepinephrine, a neurochemical that mammals produce when stressed. The next day, he snapped a Polaroid. The results were visible and obvious: The control plates were nearly barren, but those with the norepinephrine bloomed with bacteria that filigreed in frostlike patterns. Bacteria clearly responded to stress.

Then, to see if bacteria could induce stress, Lyte fed white mice a liquid solution of Campylobacter jejuni, a bacterium that can cause food poisoning in humans but generally doesn’t prompt an immune response in mice. To the trained eye, his treated mice were as healthy as the controls. But when he ran them through a plexiglass maze raised several feet above the lab floor, the bacteria-fed mice were less likely to venture out on the high, unprotected ledges of the maze. In human terms, they seemed anxious. Without the bacteria, they walked the narrow, elevated planks.

Each of these results was fascinating, but Lyte had a difficult time finding microbiology journals that would publish either. ‘‘It was so anathema to them,’’ he told me. When the mouse study finally appeared in the journal Physiology & Behavior in 1998, it garnered little attention. And yet as Stephen Collins, a gastroenterologist at McMaster University, told me, those first papers contained the seeds of an entire new field of research. ‘‘Mark showed, quite clearly, in elegant studies that are not often cited, that introducing a pathological bacterium into the gut will cause a change in behavior.’’

Lyte went on to show how stressful conditions for newborn cattle worsened deadly E. coli infections. In another experiment, he fed mice lean ground hamburger that appeared to improve memory and learning — a conceptual proof that by changing diet, he could change gut microbes and change behavior. After accumulating nearly a decade’s worth of evidence, in July 2008, he flew to Washington to present his research. He was a finalist for the National Institutes of Health’s Pioneer Award, a $2.5 million grant for so-called blue-sky biomedical research. Finally, it seemed, his time had come. When he got up to speak, Lyte described a dialogue between the bacterial organ and our central nervous system. At the two-minute mark, a prominent scientist in the audience did a spit take.

‘‘Dr. Lyte,’’ he later asked at a question-and-answer session, ‘‘if what you’re saying is right, then why is it when we give antibiotics to patients to kill bacteria, they are not running around crazy on the wards?’’

Can antibiotics given prior to surgery increase chances of depression after surgery? I know a person who suffered severe depression after...

Lyte knew it was a dismissive question. And when he lost out on the grant, it confirmed to him that the scientific community was still unwilling to imagine that any part of our neural circuitry could be influenced by single-celled organisms. Lyte published his theory in Medical Hypotheses, a low-ranking journal that served as a forum for unconventional ideas. The response, predictably, was underwhelming. ‘‘I had people call me crazy,’’ he said.

But by 2011 — when he published a second theory paper in Bioessays, proposing that probiotic bacteria could be tailored to treat specific psychological diseases — the scientific community had become much more receptive to the idea. A Canadian team, led by Stephen Collins, had demonstrated that antibiotics could be linked to less cautious behavior in mice, and only a few months before Lyte, Sven Pettersson, a microbiologist at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, published a landmark paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science that showed that mice raised without microbes spent far more time running around outside than healthy mice in a control group; without the microbes, the mice showed less apparent anxiety and were more daring. In Ireland, Cryan published his forced-swim-test study on psychobiotics. There was now a groundswell of new research. In short order, an implausible idea had become a hypothesis in need of serious validation.

Late last year, Sarkis Mazmanian, a microbiologist at the California Institute of Technology, gave a presentation at the Society for Neuroscience, ‘‘Gut Microbes and the Brain: Paradigm Shift in Neuroscience.’’ Someone had inadvertently dropped a question mark from the end, so the speculation appeared to be a definitive statement of fact. But if anyone has a chance of delivering on that promise, it’s Mazmanian, whose research has moved beyond the basic neurochemicals to focus on a broader class of molecules called metabolites: small, equally druglike chemicals that are produced by micro-organisms. Using high-powered computational tools, he also hopes to move beyond the suggestive correlations that have typified psychobiotic research to date, and instead make decisive discoveries about the mechanisms by which microbes affect brain function.

Two years ago, Mazmanian published a study in the journal Cell with Elaine Hsiao, then a graduate student in the lab of Paul Patterson, another author of the study, and now a neuroscientist at Caltech, that made a provocative link between a single molecule and behavior. Their research found that mice exhibiting abnormal communication and repetitive behaviors, like obsessively burying marbles, were mollified when they were given one of two strains of the bacterium Bacteroides fragilis.

The study added to a working hypothesis in the field that microbes don’t just affect the permeability of the barrier around the brain but also influence the intestinal lining, which normally prevents certain bacteria from leaking out and others from getting in. When the intestinal barrier was compromised in his model, normally ‘‘beneficial’’ bacteria and the toxins they produce seeped into the bloodstream and raised the possibility they could slip past the blood-brain barrier. As one of his colleagues, Michael Fischbach, a microbiologist at the University of California, San Francisco, said: ‘‘The scientific community has a way of remaining skeptical until every last arrow has been drawn, until the entire picture is colored in. Other scientists drew the pencil outlines, and Sarkis is filling in a lot of the color.’’

Mazmanian knew the results offered only a provisional explanation for why restrictive diets and antibacterial treatments seemed to help some children with autism: Altering the microbial composition might be changing the permeability of the intestine. ‘‘The larger concept is, and this is pure speculation: Is a disease like autism really a disease of the brain or maybe a disease of the gut or some other aspect of physiology?’’ Mazmanian said. For any disease in which such a link could be proved, he saw a future in drugs derived from these small molecules found inside microbes. In his view, the prescriptive solutions probably involve more than increasing our exposure to environmental microbes in soil, dogs or even fermented foods; he believed there were wholesale failures in the way we shared our microbes and inoculated children with these bacteria. So far, though, the only conclusion he could draw was that disorders once thought to be conditions of the brain might be symptoms of microbial disruptions, and it was the careful defining of these disruptions that promised to be helpful in the coming decades.

The list of potential treatments incubating in labs around the world is startling. Several international groups have found that psychobiotics had subtle yet perceptible effects in healthy volunteers in a battery of brain-scanning and psychological tests. Another team in Arizona recently finished an open trial on fecal transplants in children with autism. (Simultaneously, at least two offshore clinics, in Australia and England, began offering fecal microbiota treatments to treat neurological disorders, like multiple sclerosis.) Mazmanian: ‘‘We’ve reached the stage where there’s a lot of, you know, ‘The microbiome is the cure for everything,’ ’’ he said. ‘‘I have a vested interest if it does. But I’d be shocked if it did.’’

 

Excerpted from Peter Andrey Smith, a reporter living in Brooklyn. He frequently writes about the microbial world.

Reporting for his New York Times' article was supported by the UC Berkeley-11th Hour Food and Farming Journalism Fellowship.

PD Dr. med. Rainer Arendt
FMH Cardiology, Internal Medicine
Regenerative Medicine 

SWISS  PREVENTION  CLINIC
Klausstrasse 10
CH-8008 ZURICH
T +41 43 336 7260
M +41 78 825 0803
F +41 43 336 7261

rainer.arendt@swisspreventionclinic.ch

www.swisspreventionclinic.ch
www.patientcircle.org

Sunday
May042014

HOLISTIC  MEDICINE

The Dolder Grand

Health Care &
Rejuvenation

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine 

Timeea-Laura Burci
Lifestyle Coach & Jin  Shin Jyutsu

 

 

 

 

 

At Dolder Health Care & Rejuvenation
with partner institutions, we pursue a holistic approach to health care and wellbeing.

Timeea-Laura Burci and Jörg Wolfgang Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke in Saxony

 

Holistic medicine means consideration of the complete person, physically, psychologically, socially, and spiritually, in the management and prevention of disease. It is underpinned by the concept that there is a link between our physical health and our more general 'well-being'. In an holistic approach to medicine, there is the belief that our well-being relies not just on what is going on in our body physically in terms of illness or disease, but also on the close inter-relation of this with our psychological, emotional, social, spiritual and environmental state. These different states can be equally important. They should be managed together so that a person is treated as a whole. An holistic approach means that the doctor is informed about a patient's whole life situation.

Holistic medicine treats symptoms but it also looks for underlying causes of these symptoms. One way of explaining this is by looking for "the story behind the story". Holistic medicine allows for a wider range of treatment approaches to be used together and encourages open-mindedness for different approaches. Some of these approaches may include the use of complementary and alternative medicine but holistic medicine as we practice it, is based on academic or conventional medicine. Nutrition, exercise, naturopathy, acupuncture, healing touch and meditation or autohypnosis are just a few other treatments that may be used together with conventional medicine as part of an holistic approach.

 

 

Clinical holistic medicine actually dates as far back as Hippocrates. An holistic approach to patient care was also suggested by Percival in his book - the first textbook of medical ethics - first published in 1803. Percival stated: "The feeling and emotions of the patients require to be known and to be attended to, no less than the symptoms of their diseases."

More recently, John Macleod in his book 'Clinical Examination', first published in 1964, also commented that "we should aim to be holistic in our care". Also, the seminal work by Michael Balint, 'The Doctor, the Patient and his Illness', first published in 1957, represents an important landmark in seeing the patient as a whole rather than as isolated pathology. Illness is not just an isolated physical disorder or random event.

 

Our partner institutions:

www.patientcircle.org
www.doublecheck.ch
www.zurich-clinic.com
www.elegance-coaching.com
www.etikettenschule.ch

Sunday
Apr132014

HOW TO STAY YOUNG AND LIVE THE GOOD LONG LIFE

The Dolder Grand

Health Care &
Rejuvenation

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gut microbiota is known to have a relevant role in our health, and is also related to both gastrointestinal and extradigestive diseases. Therefore, restoring the alteration of gut microbiota represents an outstanding clinical target for the treatment of gut microbiota-related diseases.

The modulation of gut microbiota is perhaps an ancestral, innate concept for human beings.

At this time, the restoration of gut microbiota impairment is a well-established concept in mainstream medicine, and several therapeutic approaches have been developed in this regard. Fecal (or gut) microbiota transplantation is an old procedure that has recently become popular again. It has shown a clear effectiveness in the treatment of C. difficile infection, and now represents a cutting-edge option for the restoration of gut microbiota.

Gut microbiota transplantation has shown promising results, especially for the treatment of

ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

chronic infection

cancer

auto-immune diseases

metabolic diseases, diabetes, obesity

drug and alcohol addiction

burnout, exhaustion and depression

accelerated aging, FMT appears to be especially effective for rejuvenation and regeneration.

 

 

Sunday
Dec082013

AUTOHYPNOSIS: the shortcut to a deep meditative state of mind

The Dolder Grand

Health Care &
Rejuvenation

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine

Timeea-Laura Burci
Lifestyle Coach & Jin Shin Jyutsu

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trance or hypnosis denote a variety of processes, techniques, modalities and enhanced states of mind, awareness and consciousness.

Trance or hypnosis may be induced through specific induction techniques, meditation, ritual, sensory stimuli, healing touch, or prayer.

Trance or hypnosis include all the different states of mind, emotions, moods and daydreams that human beings experience. Trance states may be accessed or induced for the purposes of enhanced performance, intuition or inspiration, and healing.

Trance may be perceived as endemic to the human condition and a Human Universal. Principles of trance are being explored and documented as are methods of trance induction. Benefits of trance states are being explored by medical and scientific inquiry. Many traditions and rituals employ trance. Trance also has a function in religion and mystical experience or visions.

Milton Erickson, the founder of hypnotherapy, introduced trance and hypnosis to academic medicine and psychotherapy.

In our therapeutic sessions, we access the trance state by double-induction with two therapists (male and female) employing auto-hypnosis, EMDR, kinaesthetic stimulation and exposure to overwhelming beauty.

 

 

Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health to an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism. Healing may be physical or psychological, with respect to physical damage or disease suffered by an organism, healing involves the repair of living tissue, organs and the biological system as a whole and resumption of normal functioning. It is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and replace it with new living tissue. The replacement can happen in two ways: by regeneration in which the necrotic cells are replaced by new cells that form similar tissue as was originally there; or by repair in which injured tissue is replaced with scar tissue. Most organs will heal using a mixture of both mechanisms.

In psychiatry and psychology, healing is the process by which neuroses, psychoses or crises are resolved or overcome to the degree that the client is able to lead a normal or fulfilling existence without being overwhelmed by psychopathological phenomena. This process may involve psychotherapy, pharmaceutical treatment and increasingly re-discovered traditional spiritual approaches or energy medicine (from trance or hypnosis to transcranial magnetic deep-brain stimulation).

 

Come and experience deep-trance as an infinite well-spring of vitality, healing and replenishment.

 

The Agate Windows at the Grossmünster Zürich, by Sigmar Polke.
Polke succeeds in transforming the Grossmünster into an event of luminous colour, resulting in the seeming paradox of walls that are solid but radiantly translucent. Geologic time resonates in the images of nature within the agate stones themselves. Their intense colouring makes them look so contemporary, at times recalling movements of Modern Art.

 

Sunday
Nov172013

INTRODUCING TIMEEA-LAURA BURCI

The Dolder Grand

Health Care &
Rejuvenation

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine 

Timeea-Laura Burci
Lifestyle Coach & Jin Shin Jyutsu

 

 

Lifestyle Coach / Jin Shin Jyutsu: I help a guest bring about and fulfill new behaviors (eating, personal training, expression of emotional intelligence) that will lead to better self awareness, communication or interpersonal relationships. I help a guest to feel centered and calm, by breathing, stretching, posing, visualizing strength, flexibility, and harmony. I practice the ancient art of harmonizing the life energy in the body (Jin Shin Jyutsu).

 

 

 

We offer special programs at the Medical Wellness practice:

SUSTAINABLE  BODY WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
including virtual ablation of the hunger centers in the brain in deep-trance hypnosis, therapy of the gut brain, and exchange of the gut bacteria by transplantation

LA GRANDE BELLEZZA – holistic beauty treatments
including BestVibe matrix therapy for face smoothing and lifting, lymphatic detoxication and skin rejuvenation

LAST RESORT RECOVERY
it is our strength to offer new resources, to identify the best researchers and physicians or consultants in their fields, to provide cutting edge knowledge and expertise to overcome health issues (terminal disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis, connective tissue disease, incapacitating mental disorders, depression, exhaustion, alcohol or drug dependence) or to overcome crisis (grief, bereavement, separation, abandonment, solitude, loss of meaning) to identify a way out towards physical, mental, social and spiritual recovery

FEMALE HEALTH, REJUVENATION AND WELLBEING or MALE AND SEXUAL HEALTH WELLBEING
my course for inner and outer beauty, how to enrich your life and your female/male well-being by beauty, grace, and sexual magnetism

 

Timeea-Laura Burci