Entries in Obesity (7)

Sunday
Apr122015

How Gut Bacteria Make Us Fat or Thin

Based on http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-gut-bacteria-help-make-us-fat-and-thin/ and Claudia Wallis‘ article "Gut Reactions."

 

For the 35 percent of American adults who do daily battle with obesity, the main causes of their condition are all too familiar: an unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle and perhaps some unlucky genes. In recent years, however, researchers have become increasingly convinced that important hidden players literally lurk in human bowels: billions on billions of gut microbes.

Throughout our evolutionary history, the microscopic denizens of our intestines have helped us break down tough plant fibers in exchange for the privilege of living in such a nutritious broth. Yet their roles appear to extend beyond digestion. New evidence indicates that gut bacteria determine if and how we read our genes, alter the way we store fat, how we balance levels of glucose in the blood, and how we respond to hormones that make us feel hungry or full. The wrong mix of microbes, it seems, can help set the stage for obesity and diabetes from the moment of birth.

Fortunately, researchers are beginning to understand the differences between the wrong mix and a healthy one, as well as the specific factors that shape those differences. They hope to learn how to cultivate this inner ecosystem in ways that could prevent—and possibly treat—obesity, which doctors define as having a particular ratio of height and weight, known as the body mass index, that is greater than 30 kg/m2. Imagine, for example, foods, baby formulas or supplements devised to promote virtuous microbes while suppressing the harmful types. Keeping our gut microbes happy could be the elusive secret to weight control.

An Inner Rain Forest

Researchers have long known that the human body is home to all manner of microorganisms, but only in the past decade or so have they come to realize that these microbes outnumber our own cells 10 to one. Rapid gene-sequencing techniques have revealed that the biggest and most diverse metropolises of “microbiota” reside in the large intestine and mouth, although impressive communities also flourish in the genital tract and on our skin.

Each of us begins to assemble a unique congregation of microbes the moment we pass through the birth canal, acquiring our mother's bacteria first and continuing to gather new members from the environment throughout life. By studying the genes of these various microbes—collectively referred to as the microbiome—investigators have identified some of the most common residents, although these can vary greatly from person to person and among different human populations. In recent years researchers have begun the transition from mere census taking to determining the kind of jobs these minute inhabitants fill in the human body and the effect they have on our overall health.

An early hint that gut microbes might play a role in obesity came from studies comparing intestinal bacteria in obese and lean individuals. In studies of twins who were both lean or both obese, researchers found that the gut community in lean people was like a rain forest brimming with many species but that the community in obese people was less diverse—more like a nutrient-overloaded pond where relatively few species dominate. Lean individuals, for example, tended to have a wider variety of Bacteroidetes, a large tribe of microbes that specialize in breaking down bulky plant starches and fibers into shorter molecules that the body can use as a source of energy.

To demonstrate cause and effect, Gordon and his colleagues conducted an elegant series of experiments with so-called humanized mice, published recently in Science. First, they raised genetically identical baby rodents in a germ-free environment so that their bodies would be free of any bacteria. Then they populated their guts with intestinal microbes collected from obese women and their lean twin sisters (three pairs of fraternal female twins and one set of identical twins were used in the studies). The mice ate the same diet in equal amounts, yet the animals that received bacteria from an obese twin grew heavier and had more body fat than mice with microbes from a thin twin. As expected, the fat mice also had a less diverse community of microbes in the gut.

Gordon's team then repeated the experiment with one small twist: after giving the baby mice microbes from their respective twins, they moved the animals into a shared cage. This time both groups remained lean. Studies showed that the mice carrying microbes from the obese human had picked up some of their lean roommates' gut bacteria—especially varieties of Bacteroidetes—probably by consuming their feces, a typical mouse behavior. To further prove the point, the researchers transferred 54 varieties of bacteria from some lean mice to those with the obese-type community of germs and found that the animals that had been destined to become obese developed a healthy weight instead. Transferring just 39 strains did not do the trick. “Taken together, these experiments provide pretty compelling proof that there is a cause-and-effect relationship and that it was possible to prevent the development of obesity,” Gordon says.

Gordon theorizes that the gut community in obese mice has certain “job vacancies” for microbes that perform key roles in maintaining a healthy body weight and normal metabolism. His studies, as well as those by other researchers, offer enticing clues about what those roles might be. Compared with the thin mice, for example, Gordon's fat mice had higher levels in their blood and muscles of substances known as branched-chain amino acids and acylcarnitines. Both these chemicals are typically elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Another job vacancy associated with obesity might be one normally filled by a stomach bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. Research by Martin Blaser of New York University suggests that it helps to regulate appetite by modulating levels of ghrelin—a hunger-stimulating hormone. H. pylori was once abundant in the American digestive tract but is now rare, thanks to more hygienic living conditions and the use of antibiotics, says Blaser, author of a new book entitled Missing Microbes.

Diet is an important factor in shaping the gut ecosystem. A diet of highly processed foods, for example, has been linked to a less diverse gut community in people. Gordon's team demonstrated the complex interaction among food, microbes and body weight by feeding their humanized mice a specially prepared unhealthy chow that was high in fat and low in fruits, vegetables and fiber (as opposed to the usual high-fiber, low-fat mouse kibble). Given this “Western diet,” the mice with obese-type microbes proceeded to grow fat even when housed with lean cagemates. The unhealthy diet somehow prevented the virtuous bacteria from moving in and flourishing.

The interaction between diet and gut bacteria can predispose us to obesity from the day we are born, as can the mode by which we enter the world. Studies have shown that both formula-fed babies and infants delivered by cesarean section have a higher risk for obesity and diabetes than those who are breast-fed or delivered vaginally. Working together, Rob Knight of the University of Colorado Boulder and Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello of N.Y.U. have found that as newborns traverse the birth canal, they swallow bacteria that will later help them digest milk. C-section babies skip this bacterial baptism. Babies raised on formula face a different disadvantage: they do not get substances in breast milk that nurture beneficial bacteria and limit colonization by harmful ones. According to a recent Canadian study, babies drinking formula have bacteria in their gut that are not seen in breast-fed babies until solid foods are introduced. Their presence before the gut and immune system are mature, says Dominguez-Bello, may be one reason these babies are more susceptible to allergies, asthma, eczema and celiac disease, as well as obesity.

A new appreciation for the impact of gut microbes on body weight has intensified concerns about the profligate use of antibiotics in children. Blaser has shown that when young mice are given low doses of antibiotics, similar to what farmers give livestock, they develop about 15 percent more body fat than mice that are not given such drugs. Antibiotics may annihilate some of the bacteria that help us maintain a healthy body weight. “Antibiotics are like a fire in the forest,” Dominguez-Bello says. “The baby is forming a forest. If you have a fire in a forest that is new, you get extinction.” When Laurie Cox, a graduate student in Blaser's laboratory, combined a high-fat diet with the antibiotics, the mice became obese. “There's a synergy,” Blaser explains. He notes that antibiotic use varies greatly from state to state in the U.S., as does the prevalence of obesity, and intriguingly, the two maps line up—with both rates highest in parts of the South.

 

 

Beyond Probiotics

Many scientists who work on the microbiome think their research will inspire a new generation of tools to treat and prevent obesity. A number of scientists are actively developing potential treatments. Dominguez-Bello, for example, is conducting a clinical trial in Puerto Rico in which babies born by cesarean section are immediately swabbed with a gauze cloth laced with the mother's vaginal fluids and resident microbes. She will track the weight and overall health of the infants in her study, comparing them with C-section babies who did not receive the gauze treatment.

 

We offer gut microbiome exchange (transplantation) as new treatment for obesity and diabetes mellitus

Along with exercising and eating right, we need to enlist our inner microbial army, transferring colonic bacteria from lean to overweight people will lead to weight loss.

Monday
Nov112013

SUSTAINABLE BODY WEIGHT  MANAGEMENT

The Dolder Grand

Health Care &
Rejuvenation

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine 

Timeea-Laura Burci
Lifestyle Coach & Jin Shin Jyutsu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

Living with obesity is uncomfortable, or even humiliating because all entertainments and beautiful things are designed for people with average weight!

The lifespan is cut short by obesity because obesity and increased central fat are associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and cancer. The quality of life is negatively impacted by obesity that comes with accelerated aging, degenerative diseases, and sexual dysfunction.

You did your best to become slender but failed? How many people do you know who used to be very heavy but succeeded in getting rid of their excessive weight? We have a scientific explanation for this all too likely failure in achieving your healthy body weight. Obesity is not a consequence of our behaviors but results from a disorder of nervous cells in the gut ("the gut brain") and a "wrong" set of gut bacteria.

A fascinating study looked at identical human twins, where one was thin and the other obese. Their gut microbiota was transferred into specially bred mice who did not have their own gut bacteria. Remarkably, the mice who received bacteria from thin subjects stayed thin, while the recipients from the obese twins became fat.

These new findings fundamentally change our approach to weight loss. You will now become smaller every month with a new set of intestinal bacteria that will synthezise different neurochemicals and neurohormones for the gut brain, with novel plant products, nutraceuticals and natural hormones, that are safe and will increase your metabolic rate (thus you will burn more calories), with deep trance disruption of overeating by erasing harmful memories from the gut brain, with a tasty Mediterranean eating style and physical exercise to improve endurance, muscle strength, and balance.

You will become hot and slender within a few months. We have devised this program to purify your body, boost your energy, melt fat and suppress your appetite in the most natural and efficient way. 


 

SUSTAINABLE  BODY  WEIGHT program

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine 


Timeea-Laura Burci
Lifestyle Coach & Jin Shin Jyutsu

 

 

Introduction to the program

Initial consultation

Dolder Health Care & Rejuvenation

Salutogenesis and Rejuvenation 

In-depth consultation, physical examination, comprehensive lab check incl. biological age, assessment of deficits, written report with recommendations and prescriptions

Dolder Health Care & Rejuvenation

Weight Loss and Rejuvenation Programs

Gestalt desktop constellation for personal stocktaking and life course adjustment, personal and nutritional training, exchange of the intestinal microbiom (by Swiss strains of friendly probiotic bacteria or microbiota transplantation from healthy super-slim donors), herbal treatments, nutraceuticals and natural hormones for curbing the appetite, increasing the metabolic rate and slowing down the absorption of sugar, “deep trance" rejuvenation and body repair with two therapists, erasing your former eating behaviour by interacting with the "gut brain", neuroimagination techniques for virtual ablation of the hypothalamic hunger centers leading to drastic reduction in food intake

Dolder Health Care & Rejuvenation

"La Grande Bellezza" Program

 

Healing Touch and Deep Trance body sculpturing for inner and outer beauty. Reinventing the body, resurrecting the soul, enrich your life and your female/male well-being by beauty, grace, and sexual magnetism 

Dolder Health Care & Rejuvenation

The Spa

We start you on your individual training program to strength, confidence and health regained

The Dolder Grand & Spa

 

 

Monday
Nov112013

Gut Bacteria Transplant: A New Treatment For Obesity And Depression

The Dolder Grand

Health Care &
Rejuvenation

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regeneratice Medicine 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on Psychology Today, Dale Archer Sep. 2013

 

Recent scientific studies indicate that gut bacteria may play a pivotal role in brain chemistry and mental health. More specifically, the right type of “healthy bacteria” in your gut may treat/prevent depression, anxiety and obesity.

In research circles the gut is often referred to as the "second brain". There are over 100 million neurons in the gut (more than the spinal cord or peripheral nervous system) and many contain the exact same neurotransmitters as the brain.

 

We know that the gut and mood are related—think butterflies in your stomach when anxious or a knot in your stomach when stressed out. This link is via the vagus nerve, a direct neuronal connection between the gut and the brain. In fact vagus nerve stimulation via an implanted electrode treats depression.

What’s new and exciting now are studies that indicate that bacteria in the gut are doing far more than simply digesting food and maintaining a healthy immune system.

Here is some background on recent findings related to gut bacteria:
Don't be put off by the term "bacteria" like it's a bad thing. Actually, there are over 100 trillion microorganisms living in the gut—vastly more than the number of cells in your whole body. These bugs weigh about five pounds, the same as your brain and perform a multitude of functions, much like other organs in the body.

 

 

Transplantation of good, healthy bacteria from one person’s gut to another is quick via endoscopy, colonoscopy or enema. This is essentially a “stool transplant”, but is more accurately known as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). FMT is currently used to treat life threatening infections, has a 90% cure rate and is being studied as a possible treatment for inflammatory bowel disease . Could weight loss  be next?

A fascinating study looked at identical human twins, where one was thin and the other obese. Their gut microbiota was transferred into specially bred mice who did not have their own gut bacteria. Remarkably, the mice who received bacteria from thin subjects stayed thin, while the recipients from the obese twins became fat.

As for the psychiatric possibilities, there was a recent study of calm vs. anxious mice. Fecal microbiota transplanted from an anxious strain of mice made a calm mouse very anxious. Not only that, but transplant of the gut content from the calm strain helped to relax and increase the confidence of the anxious strain . In this case, their behavior wasn't dependent on genetics or brain chemistry but rather the bacterial composition of their gut!

In humans, UCLA looked at 36 women without psychiatric symptoms. Twelve women ate fermented yogurt with probiotics (so called “good bacteria”), 11 ate a non-fermented milk product and 13 received no intervention whatsoever. By measuring brain activity via functional MRI, they found the women who ate the fermented yogurt registered brain function changes in areas associated with emotion and sensation when exposed to pictures showing angry or frightened faces.

This is the first human study to show an interaction between probiotics and the brain. Larger and more complex studies are in the works, but the National Institute of Mental Health has called for grant submissions to further investigate this potentially game changing concept.

Humans are, by cell count, approximately 90% bacteria. As microbial research continues, we're finding these little bugs play a much bigger role in our life than we could ever imagine. Our mental and physical health may well not just be encoded in our DNA but dictated by our bacterial makeup as well.

The next treatment for depression, anxiety or obesity will focus on the bacterial composition of our gut as opposed to brain chemistry or behavior.

Thursday
Sep062012

The Fat Trap

The Dolder Grand

Health Care &
Rejuvenation

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Prevention & Regenerative Medicine 

Timeea-Laura Burci
Lifestyle Coach & Jin Shin Jyutsu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on a piece by TARA PARKER-POPE, nytimes December 28, 2011

 

Nobody wants to be fat. In most modern cultures, even if you are healthy, to be fat is to be perceived as weak-willed and lazy. It’s also just embarrassing. If anything, the emerging science of weight loss teaches us that perhaps we should rethink our biases about people who are overweight. It is true that people who are overweight get that way because they eat too many calories relative to what their bodies need. But a number of biological and genetic factors can play a role in determining exactly how much food is too much for any given individual.

Photo by Karen Kasmauski

While the public discussion about weight loss tends to come down to which diet works best (actually the one with the best evidence is Mediterranean, and it is not even a diet, it is an eating style), those who have tried and failed at diets know there is no simple answer. Fat to a lesser degrees, but sugar and carbohydrates in processed foods are certainly culprits in the obesity problem. But there is tremendous variation in an individual’s response.

The view of obesity as primarily a biological, rather than psychological, disease could also lead to changes in the way we approach its treatment. Scientists at Columbia have conducted several small studies looking at whether injecting people with leptin, the hormone made by body fat, can override the body’s resistance to weight loss and help maintain a lower weight. In a few small studies, leptin injections appear to trick the body into thinking it’s still fat. After leptin replacement, study subjects burned more calories during activity. And in brain-scan studies, leptin injections appeared to change how the brain responded to food, making it seem less enticing.

Given how hard it is to lose weight, it’s clear, from a public-health standpoint, that resources would best be focused on preventing weight gain. The research underscores the urgency of national efforts to get children to exercise and eat healthful foods.

But with a third of the U.S. adult population classified as obese, nobody is saying people who already are very overweight should give up on weight loss. Instead, the solution may be to preach a more realistic goal. Studies suggest that even a 5 percent weight loss can lower a person’s risk for diabetes, heart disease and other health problems associated with obesity. There is also speculation that the body is more willing to accept small amounts of weight loss.

But an obese person who loses just 5 percent of her body weight will still very likely be obese. For a 113 kg (250 pound) woman, a 5 percent weight loss of about 5 kg (12 pounds) probably won’t even change her clothing size. Losing a few pounds may be good for the body, but it does very little for the spirit and is unlikely to change how fat people feel about themselves or how others perceive them.

So where does that leave a person who wants to lose a sizable amount of weight?



For us, understanding the science of weight loss and learning that there are factors other than character at work when it comes to gaining and losing weight, has had a liberating effect. We have completely changed our clinic’s program of making you drop excess pounds in a short time. Instead, we have built our novel weight loss program on biological therapies and neuroscience-based coaching to reverse the neurochemistry of the fat trap.


Our MEDICAL WELLNESS "weight balance and rejuvenation" program
at THE DOLDER GRAND, Zurich may be booked for a long weekend or one to three weeks with regular shorter boosters over the next two years.


Important elements of our programs are:

an individual check-up examination at the Double Check facilities

personal physical training 1:1 with spa coaches and physiotherapists

personal nutritional training with our chefs 

life coaching incl. Gestalt desktop constellation for personal stocktaking and life course adjustment

transient pharmacological therapy for suppressing appetite

hormonal or herbal treatments for rejuvenation

outdoor sports and excursions to the Alps ("magical Switzerland tours") with increasing fitness levels

rejuvenation therapy (detoxification and chelation treatment)

aesthetic surgery consultations

aesthetic dermatology consultations

bariatric surgery consultations at the University Hospital Zurich if requested

“deep trance" rejuvenation and body repair with two therapists (male and female), experience how the mind and special neuro-imagination techniques shape the body, increase metabolism and suppress appetite 

Thursday
Sep062012

Surprising Reasons You're Gaining Weight 

Aesthetic + Health Link
Medical Wellness Practice

The Dolder Grand

 

PD Dr. Rainer Arendt
Internal Medicine & Cardiology FMH
Exec. Coaching & Corporate Health 

Timeea-Laura Burci
Lifestyle Coach & Jin Shin Jyutsu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What's With the Weight Gain (based on WebMD) ?

If you started taking in more calories than usual or cutting back on exercise, you wouldn't be surprised if the numbers on the scale crept higher. But what if you're doing everything the same as you always do and your weight still goes up? It's time to delve a little deeper into what else might be going on.

 

Lack of Sleep

There are two issues at work with sleep and weight gain. The first is intuitive: If you're up late, the odds are greater that you're doing some late-night snacking, which will increase your calorie intake. The other reason involves what's going on biochemically when you're sleep deprived. Changes in hormone levels increase hunger and appetite and also make you feel not as full after eating.

 

Stress

When life's demands get too intense, our bodies go into survival mode: Cortisol, the "stress hormone," is secreted, which causes an increase in appetite. And then of course, we may reach for high-calorie comfort foods in times of stress as well. This combination is a perfect breeding ground for weight gain.

 

Antidepressants

An unfortunate side effect from some antidepressants is weight gain.